There comes a time in writing Python programs where you need to test something, work on an update to a module, or test a new module in a sandbox. Luckily there is a helpful process to use called Virtual Environments. Running your project in a virtual environment will allow you to keep modules separate from your global module set if you do not want to keep everything all together or need to work specifically on a new project.
- Before we go further lets ensure we have everything setup. We need to run
python --versionfrom our terminal You should get a response back like
choco install python
- Now that Python is installed, lets upgrade PIP. PIP is the package installer for Python. This is what we use to install other Python modules. Run
python -m pip install -U pip
in our terminal and pip will check if there is an update to the pip module.
- Checking on virtualenv Run
pip install virtualenv
This will check to see if virtualenv is installed and if not, pip will install it.
Creating our virtualenv
Now that we have our pre-requisites in place we can create our virtual environment. In our terminal lets create a new folder, and change to that directory.
mkdir testapp cd testapp
Now in our testapp folder run the following command and it will generate a base copy of Python and other setup items.
This will create the following folders for use in the new virtual environment. Include, Lib, Scripts, tcl, License.txt
Activating out virtualenv
Now we will need to activate our virtual environment by doing the following for Windows
You will notice your terminal now switched to
(testapp) PS C:\scripts\testapp>
If you were to run
pip install requests
this will install a new version of this module for this virtual environment. If you needed to leave the virtual environment and stay in the terminal you can always type
and this will return you to your normal terminal.
A Virtual Environment is a great tool to keep the dependencies required by different projects in separate places, by creating virtual Python environments for them. This allows us to manage different projects that use different dependencies and versions, and keeps your global site-packages directory clean and manageable. This is also good to test newer module versions to ensure your original source code will work with the newer version.
To keep your environments consistent you can “freeze” your current state of packages by typing to following.
python pip freeze >> requirements.txt
This will create a requirements.txt file that you can use for later for easier development or sharing of your Python project with others. The other users will just need to install ther requirements.
python pip install -r requirements.txt